The Holy Prophet addressed a mammoth gathering comprising more than a hundred thousand of his companions on the 9th Zul-Haj, 10 A.H. from the top of Jabal-ul-Arafat in the vale of Arfat. This was his first and the last pilgrimage. The momentous address (which he gave) is known as the Farewell Address.
Never before had such a spectacle been witnessed in the annals of the world, nor had humanity heard such moving words, advocating respect for the humans. The words of the Holy Prophet were steeped in sincerity and delivered with strong emotion and melodious (mellifluous) voice.
This address forms the basis (constitution) of individual and collective morality, the Islamic Sharia and contains the analysis (solution of important problem and elucidation of factual things (realities of life).It can rightly be designated (called) the greatest Charter of human right. Fourteen centuries have elapsed but not a word has been added to it, nor can any addition be made to it, in as much as it consists of words which came from the mouth of that personality, who was the most eloquent of the Arabs and non Arabs and who had been gifted with comprehensive speech (words). As the Prophets so his address is the last word in ethics. Therefore, it occupies a unique position as an everlasting (eternal) document of Charter of human rights.
In the present world one hears a lot about human rights, but all the advocacy and publicity are forms of illusion.
Who can deny what novel ways are being adopted (invented)to trample on human dignity? Those very nations who rise the slogans of the respect for humanity, mercilessly exploit weaker and less developed nations and rear stupendous structures (edifices) of their culture and civilization on them. With their tyrannical and machievellian efforts to improve the lot of trodden humanity, these nations try to convince other nation that whatever they undertake to do id for the amelioration of humanity. Exploitation in the name of humanity is being carried on in such a subtle way that no one can comprehend it. In the tall claims of the service of humanity such treachery, deceit: hypocrisy: fraud and destruction are cleverly hidden that no one can probe their depth.
The Holy Prophet on the contrary, give the entire humanity such instructions and guidance that the whole human trace can easily build its character, achieve purity of heart, cultivation of mind and self realization in the light of his teaching. He said. "Ye people: Listen to my words. Let him that present tell it unto him that is absent so that everyone may profit by my words' and the whole humanity should benefit by them."
This is because the Holy Prophet was sent as Apostle of Allah for the whole humanity. This is the reason, whey he addressed the people as whole.
It is therefore, bounden duty of the Muslims to disseminate this message which is remarkable for its eloquence, enthusiasm and which contains comprehensible direction for moral guidance. For the Holy Prophet Said.' if you know one verse of the Holy Book, communicates it to others."
And we ourselves also should act upon these injunctions.
In the end, we pray to the Almighty Allah to enable us to learn the Holly Book and Sunna and act upon them.
And our last prayer is 'Glory to thee O Allah, Lord of the Worlds".
Suppliant for Prayers
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
The last Sermon of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)
On the Hajj Day, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) arrived at Arafat and stayed there. As the day declined, he sent for his dromedary. The animal was brought and put ready. He rode into the heart of valley and delivered his famous address which proved his life's last Hajj sermon. In that memorable sermon, he delat upon the basic message of the religion Islam.
After praising Almighty Allah, he started his address in these words: There is none to worship except Allah. None is like Him or equal Him nor has any co-sharer. He fulfilled His promise and helped His own creature and Messenger, and He along defeated and smashed all the concerted forces of falsehood.
O ye people! Listen to me, as I do not thank we may have another opportunity of meeting again as in this gathering
O people! Allah Almighty says:
O mankind: We created you from a mail and female couple and made you into tribes and nation so as to be known one from another. Verily in the says of Allah only the most righteous among you is the most honored of you' in the light of the Quranic verse, the Prophet concluded, no Arab nor was a white anyway better than a black. The only criterion for the superiority and respectably was the one element of piety.
All human beings, he said were the off-spring of Adam and the very existence of Adam was that he sprang from dust. Hence all claims to superiority and greatness t, and demands for blood or rule have been trodden under my feed. Only trusteeship over water to Kaaba and the old right to serve water to Hajjis will remain intact.
The Prophet further observed: O Ye the clan of Quraish, see thou should appear resurrected on the Day of Judgment before Allah, laden with wordly weight of sins whilst others equipped with acts of goodness deserving, I shall not be in a position to keep you up in the presence of Almighty Allah.
O the people of Quraish Allah has put an end to your nation of false vanity and there is no room left now for your feeling proud any longer of you forefathers' deeds. Now everybody's blood, property and property and now of the Holy Month and specially in this city. And you will meet your sustainer. He will ask you about your deeds.
After me do not go astray and begin to kill one another. If anybody is made custodian of anything, he must keep that trust till the thing held in custody is restored to the rightful owner.
O Ye people! A Muslim is another Muslim's are brothers among themselves.
Take care of your slaves. Let them eat what you yourself eat and let them wear as you wear for yourself.
All that prevailed during the pre Islamic period of ignorance has been trampled under my feet. All blood dues of the day of ignorance have been written off and henceforth none will wreck vengeance on the others. The first right to retaliate pertaining to my own house stands sowed. I hereby pardon the murder by Banu Huzail of the suckling babe of Rabia son of Haris, who belonged to my family.
All interest or usurious dues coming from the time of ignorance stand scotched off and I lead the rest by canceling the interest payable to the family of my uncle Abbas bin Abdul Muttlib.
O ye people, Allah has (through the law of inheritance) fixed the right of every rightful heirs, therefore no other testament be considered valid for any of these.
Only the child born within wedlock will be considered legal legitimate heir to the parents. Adultery proved will be punishable with stoning. All acts of omission and commission will be accountable to Almighty Allah hereafter.
Anybody claiming false ancestry or ascribing untrue bondage against his own master will be accursed by Allah.
Debts payable should be cleared. All borrowed property is to be returned, while gifts should be countered and a surety must make good the loose on behalf of the assured.
It is not proper for anybody to have anything from his brother except whatever is given over through brother's consent and pleasure. Do not overstep yourselves as well as others and allow no excesses whatsoever.
A woman has no right to part with or transfer to any other person her husband's property without the latter's express permission.
O ye people, you owe your women certain rights and likewise you have right over your women. Your right is that the women should not like. Near them anybody whom you not like. Their right is to maintain completed integrity and shun indecency. If they fail, Allah allows you to chastise them and when they behave better and com round, let them be well looked after.
Treat your women nicely as they are bound to you and are incapable of managing many of their affairs themselves. Hence always keep Allah's command in view, namely that you have accepted them in the name of Allah and His name have been made lawful to you. O people understand what I say. I have conveyed to you the message of Allah.
I leave in your amidst a thing which if held by, will never let you go astray. And that is the Holly Book of Allah. And beware exceeding limits fixed in matters of the religion. Nations which preceded you, perished because of similar unwarranted lapses.
Satan has now been spared no hope of being worshiped any more in his city or yours. However chance are yet, there in matters unwittingly considered miner by you, Satan's ways ma prevail. Even that much affords him a convenient footing. So take care to safeguard your faith and religion against Satan's perversions.
O people worship this one Allah Almighty. Remain punctual in your daily five time Prayers. Keep a mouth's fast during the Ramzan. Pay out Zakat with a good cheer and perform pilgrimage to the House of Allah and obey your Amirs, thus you shall enter Allah's Paradise.
Henceforth a criminal will himself be answerable for his crime. A son will not be chargeable on father's account nor will a father repay for his son's doings.
Listen! Those who are present here should convey my message to the other not present here. May be many of those not present on this occasion may prove of greater understanding and be better trustees of what I have conveyed unto you.
And o ye people, you may be questioned by Allah about me. What will be your reply?
The people cried in reply: we shall bear witness that you conveyed to us the Divine message entrusted to you as Apostle of Allah and led us to the path of truth and goodness.
Hearing that, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) pointing with his index finger towards heaven signed to the gathering and observed thrice in devout passion: "Be witness to it O my Allah Almighty, Be witness to it O my Allah Almighty, Be witness to it O my Allah Almighty"